A Landmark Step: EPA Designates PFOA and PFOS as Hazardous Substances Under CERCLA

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) announcement on April 19, 2024, of its final rule designating perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) as hazardous substances under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), marks a significant moment in environmental regulation of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). At the same time, the EPA released a new PFAS Enforcement Discretion and Settlement Policy under CERCLA (“Enforcement Policy”). These two announcements have wide-ranging implications for Superfund cleanups, development projects, public health, and the scope of environmental liability under CERCLA. The Persistent Threat of “Forever Chemicals” PFOA and PFOS belong to the PFAS class, a large group of man-made chemicals known for their exceptional resistance to degradation. These chemicals have been widely used since the 1940s in countless industrial applications and consumer products. Their unique chemical structure makes them highly effective in repelling water, oil, and stains. However, this same property also makes them incredibly persistent in the environment, earning them the nickname “forever chemicals.” Over time, PFAS have infiltrated various environmental media, including soil, water, and air. Extensive research over the past few decades has linked PFAS exposure to a range of human health problems, including: Certain cancers, particularly testicular and kidney cancers Liver damage Increased cholesterol levels Thyroid issues Developmental problems in infants and children, including low birth...